Understanding TTL security in BGP : Network Security
While forming eBGP neighborship via Service provider network, there is security risk involved on probable attack from unsecured Internet Service provider domain to secured customer environment. A drawback to eBGP multihop is that by spoofing legitimate packets towards a BGP router at high volume a DOS attack may be accomplished.
Cisco has devised method to address the threat on BGP communication to meet clean communication between customer and provider BGP interlock.
By default the Cisco IOS send eBGP messages with a TTL value of 1.We can however modify this value using the eBGP multi-hop feature. If the TTL value of 1 is sent it requires the BGP neighbors to be directly connected else the neighbourship won’t be established.
Using eBGP multihop we can form neighbourship with peers at some hops away rather than being directly connected.
TTL-Security is a mechanism we use to protect our eBGP session against such DOS attacks. BGP TTL Security check can only be used with eBGP sessions and not with iBGP sessions.TTL Security and eBGP multihop are mutually exclusive and only one can be configured to form directly connected or multihop peering sessions.eBGP
We can configure the TTL-Security feature against an eBGP neighbor using a simple command:
neighbor TTL-security hops
BGP by default sends packets to external neighbours with a TTL of 1 and accepts packets from external neighbours with a TTL of 0 or higher (as measured after the local router has decremented the TTL of the incoming packet).
The TTL-Security changes the default behavior of originating by having BGP originate packets with a TTL of 255.
BGP Messages acceptance criteria in case TTL Security is configured:
TTL of the IP Packet should be greater than or equal to 255 – (Hop Count Configured)
In this topology we will form neighborship over the R1 and R2’s loopback interface with ttl-security hop as 2.
R1 will accept only those packets from R2 that have the IP TTL value of 253 at least.
ip address 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.255
ip ospf 1 area 0
ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0
ip ospf 1 area 0
router bgp 100
neighbor 220.127.116.11 remote-as 200
neighbor 18.104.22.168 ttl-security hops 2
neighbor 22.214.171.124 update-source Loopback0
ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.255
ip ospf 1 area 0
ip address 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.0
ip ospf 1 area 0
router bgp 200
neighbor 184.108.40.206 remote-as 100
neighbor 220.127.116.11 ttl-security hops 2
neighbor 18.104.22.168 update-source Loopback0
We see the TTL value minimum required is 253 which is 255 (Hop-Count Configured) R1# sh ip bgp neighbors 22.214.171.124
BGP neighbor is 126.96.36.199, remote AS 200, external link
BGP version 4, remote router ID 188.8.131.52
BGP state = Established, up for 00:02:12
Last read 00:00:22, last write 00:00:19, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
1 active, is not multisession capable (disabled)
Route refresh: advertised and received(new)
Four-octets ASN Capability: advertised and received
Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received
Enhanced Refresh Capability: advertised and received
Stateful switchover support enabled: NO for session 1
InQ depth is 0
OutQ depth is 0
Opens: 1 1
Notifications: 0 0
Updates: 1 1
Keepalives: 3 3
Route Refresh: 0 0
Total: 5 5
Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds
For address family: IPv4 Unicast
BGP table version 1, neighbor version 1/0
Output queue size : 0
Index 1, Advertise bit 0
1 update-group member
Slow-peer detection is disabled
Slow-peer split-update-group dynamic is disabled
Prefix activity: —- —-
Prefixes Current: 0 0
Prefixes Total: 0 0
Implicit Withdraw: 0 0
Explicit Withdraw: 0 0
Used as bestpath: n/a 0
Used as multipath: n/a 0
Local Policy Denied Prefixes: ——– ——-
Total: 0 0
Number of NLRIs in the update sent: max 0, min 0
Last detected as dynamic slow peer: never
Dynamic slow peer recovered: never
Refresh Epoch: 1
Last Sent Refresh Start-of-rib: never
Last Sent Refresh End-of-rib: never
Last Received Refresh Start-of-rib: never
Last Received Refresh End-of-rib: never
Refresh activity: —- —-
Refresh Start-of-RIB 0 0
Refresh End-of-RIB 0 0
Address tracking is enabled, the RIB does have a route to 184.108.40.206
Connections established 1; dropped 0
Last reset never
External BGP neighbor may be up to 2 hops away.
Transport(tcp) path-mtu-discovery is enabled
Graceful-Restart is disabled
Connection state is ESTAB, I/O status: 1, unread input bytes: 0
Connection is ECN Disabled
Status Flags: passive open, gen tcbs
Option Flags: nagle, path mtu capable
Datagrams (max data segment is 1460 bytes):
Rcvd: 9 (out of order: 0), with data: 5, total data bytes: 137
Sent: 9 (retransmit: 0 fastretransmit: 0),with data: 5, total data bytes: 137
I am here to share my knowledge and experience in the field of networking with the goal being - "The more you share, the more you learn."
I am a biotechnologist by qualification and a Network Enthusiast by interest. I developed interest in networking being in the company of a passionate Network Professional, my husband.
I am a strong believer of the fact that "learning is a constant process of discovering yourself."
- Rashmi Bhardwaj (Author/Editor)